Tuesday, February 28, 2017

Memory of His Work: What You Want to Know About Who Abdul Sattar Edhi Was?

 Abdul Sattar Edhi (29 February 941 B.C. – 8 July 2016) was a Pakistani philanthropist, ascetic, and humanitarian who founded the Edhi Foundation which runs hospitals, homeless shelters, rehab centres, and orphanages across Pakistan.
 Born in Gujarat, British India, Edhi moved to Karachi where he established a free dispensary for Karachi's low-income residents. Edhi's charitable activities expanded in 1957 when an Asian flu epidemic swept through Karachi. Donations allowed him to buy his first ambulance the same year. He later expanded his charity network with the help of his wife Bilquis Edhi.
Over his lifetime, the Edhi Foundation expanded backed entirely by private donations, including establishing a network of 1,800 minivan ambulances. By the time of his death Edhi was registered as a parent or guardian of nearly 20,000 children. He was known as the 'Angel of Mercy' and was considered to be Pakistan's "most respected" and legendary figure. 
In 2013, The Huffington Post claimed that he might be "the world's greatest living humanitarian. In his obituary, The Daily Telegraph described Eidhi as the "Father Teresa' of Pakistan.
On what would have been his 89th birthday in 2017, Google's Doodles in 11 countries celebrated him for his "super-efficient" ambulance service.
Edhi maintained a hands-off management style and was often critical of the clergy and politicians. He was a strong proponent of religious tolerance in Pakistan and extended support to the victims of Hurricane Katrina and 1985 famine in Ethiopia. Edhi was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by Malala Yousafzai in 2016. Eidhi died on 8 July 2016 after suffering from kidney failure.


Early life

He was born in Bantva in the Gujarat, British India into a Memon family. His mother would give him 1 paisa for his meals and another to give to a beggar. When he was eleven, his mother became paralysed from a stroke and she died when Edhi was 19. His personal experiences and care for his mother during her illness caused him to develop a system of services for old, mentally ill and challenged people. The partition of India led Edhi and his family to migrate to Pakistan in 1947.
 He then shifted to Karachi to work in a market at a wholesale shop. He initially started as a peddler, and later became a commission agent selling cloth in the wholesale market in Karachi. After a few years, he established a free dispensary with help from his community.
He told NPR (National Public Radio) in 2009 that "I saw people laying on the pavement ... The flu had spread in Karachi, and there was no one to treat them. So I set up benches and got medical students to volunteer. I was penniless and begged for donations on the street. And people gave. I bought this 8-by-8 room to start my work.

Charity work

"People have become educated, but have yet to become human."  
 Abdul Sattar Edhi
Edhi resolved to dedicate his life to aiding the poor, and over the next sixty years, he single handedly changed the face of welfare in Pakistan. Edhi founded the Edhi Foundation. Additionally, he established a welfare trust, named the Edhi Trust with an initial sum of five thousand rupees which was later renamed as Bilqis Edhi Trust. Regarded as a guardian for the poor, Edhi began receiving numerous donations, which allowed him to expand his services. To this day, the Edhi Foundation continues to grow in both size and service and is currently the largest welfare organization in Pakistan. Since its inception, the Edhi Foundation has rescued over 20,000 abandoned infants, rehabilitated over 50,000 orphans and has trained over 40,000 nurses. It also runs more than 330 welfare centres in rural and urban Pakistan which operate as food kitchens, rehabilitation homes, shelters for abandoned women and children, and clinics for the mentally handicapped.
The Edhi Foundation, founded by Edhi, runs the world's largest ambulance service (operating 1,500 of them) and offers 24-hour emergency services. It also operates free nursing homes, orphanages, clinics, women's shelters, and rehab centres for drug addicts and mentally ill individuals. It has run relief operations in Africa, Middle East, the Caucasus region, eastern Europe, and the United States where it provided aid following Hurricane Katrina in 2005. His son Faisal Edhi, wife Bilquis Edhi, and daughters managed the daily operations of the organization during his ill health. He was referred as Pakistan's version of Mother Teresa, and the BBC wrote that he was considered "Pakistan's most respected figure and was seen by some as almost a saint


·         "Ao mil ke bachay bachain”
         I do not have any formal education. What use is education when we do not become human beings? My school is the welfare of humanity.”

        “Never take anyone’s death to heart Bilquis. Remember God by the equality with which He implements it. Nobody is different, the richest to the poorest, from here to the end of the globe face it equally. What an example of equality.”

        “So, many years later there were many who still complained and questioned, ‘Why must you pick up Christians and Hindus in your ambulance?’ And I was saying, ‘Because the ambulance is more Muslim than you’.”

         “Empty words and long praises do not impress God. Show Him your faith by your deeds.”

         “Chasing after desires creates inner turmoil. When the devil becomes guide, dacoits and gangsters are manufactured. He makes men fight against their souls to survive expensive items and most lose everything in the face of his strength. The internal enemy can only be overcome by a personal revolution.”

       “The dead has only one place to go… up. Wherever you bury them, they will go the same way, up.”

       “The Holy Book should open in your souls, not on your laps. Open your heart and see God’s people. In their plight you will find Him.”

        “Those who believed in changing the world were either hungry by circumstance or practiced deprivation by choice.”

      “Appearance is a distraction, surrendering it develops truth and humility in abundance.”

Travel issues

In the early 1980s, Edhi was arrested by Israeli troops while entering Lebanon. In 2006, he was detained in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, for 16 hours. In January 2008, U.S. immigration officials interrogated Edhi at the John F. Kennedy Airport in New York City for over eight hours and seized his passport and other documents. When asked about the frequent detention Edhi said, "The only explanation I can think of is my beard and my dress.

Personal life

Edhi was married in 1965 to Bilquis, a nurse who worked at the Edhi dispensary. The couple had four children, two daughters, and two sons. Bilquis runs the free maternity home at the headquarters in Karachi and organizes the adoption of abandoned babies including those born out of wedlock. Edhi was known for his ascetic lifestyle, owning only two pairs of clothes, never taking a salary from his organisation and living in an apartment next to his organization's office. Edhi stated that he had "never been a very religious person.

Illness and death

On 25 June 2013, Edhi's kidneys failed; it was announced that he would be on dialysis for the rest of his life unless he found a kidney donor. Edhi died on 8 July 2016 at the age of 88 due to kidney failure after having been placed on a ventilator. His last wishes included the request that his organs were to be donated but due to his ill health, only his corneas were suitable. He was laid to rest at the Edhi Village Karachi.
Edhi reportedly declined an offer for treatment abroad, saying he would be treated only in a government hospital in Pakistan.
On what would have been his 89th birthday in 2017, Google's Doodles in 11 countries celebrated him for his "super-efficient" ambulance service.

Reactions and funeral

Reactions to his death came from several high-ranking Pakistani officials. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif said "We have lost a great servant of humanity. He was the real manifestation of love for those who were socially vulnerable, impoverished, helpless and poor. The country's head of the army, Raheel Sharif, called him a "true humanitarian”.
Prime Minister Sharif declared national mourning on the day following Edhi's death and announced a state funeral for him. He was the third Pakistani, after Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Zia ul Haq, and the only Pakistani without state authority or a state role, to receive a gun carriage funeral. According to Inter-Services Public Relations, state honours were given to Edhi by a guard of honour and a 19-gun salute. The attendees at his Salat al-Janazah (funeral prayer) included dignitaries such as Mamnoon Hussain (President of Pakistan), Raza Rabbani (the Chairman of the Senate), Ishratul Ibad (former provincial Governor of Sindh), Qaim Ali Shah and Shehbaz Sharif (the Chief Ministers of Sindh and Punjab), Raheel Shareef (Chief of Army Staff), Muhammad Zakaullah (Chief of Naval Staff) and Sohail Aman (Chief of Air Staff), at the National Stadium, Karachi.

Honors and awards

International awards

·         Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service (1986)
·         Lenin Peace Prize (1988)
·         Paul Harris Fellow from Rotary International (1993)
·         Peace Prize from the former USSR, for services during the Armenian earthquake disaster (1998)
·         Hamdan Award for volunteers in Humanitarian Medical Services (2000), UAE
·         International Balzan Prize (2000) for Humanity, Peace and Brotherhood, Italy
·         Peace and Harmony Award (2001), Delhi
·         Peace Award (2004), Mumbai
·         Peace Award (2005), Hyderabad Deccan
·         Gandhi Peace Award (2007), Delhi
·         Peace Award (2008), Seoul
·         UNESCO-Madanjeet Singh Prize (2009)
·         Ahmadiyya Muslim Peace Prize (2010)
·         Honorary Doctorate by the University of Bedfordshire (2010)
·         Google paid tribute to Edhi with Doodle on his 89th birthday.

National awards

·         Silver Jubilee Shield by College of Physicians and Surgeons (1962–1987)
·         Moiz ur rehman Award (2015)
·         The Social Worker of Sub-Continent by Government of Sindh (1989)
·         Nishan-e-Imtiaz, civil decoration from the Government of Pakistan (1989)
·         Recognition of meritorious services to oppressed humanity during the 1980s by Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Government of Pakistan (1989)
·         Pakistan Civic Award from the Pakistan Civic Society (1992)
·         Jinnah Award for Outstanding Services to Pakistan was conferred in April 1998 by The Jinnah Society. This was the first Jinnah Award conferred on any person in Pakistan.
·         Shield of Honor by Pakistan Army (E & C)
·         Khidmat Award by the Pakistan Academy of Medical Sciences
·         Bacha Khan Aman (Peace) Award in 1991
·         Human Rights Award by Pakistan Human Rights Society
·         2013 Person of the Year by the readers of The Express Tribune

Commemorative coin

Per directive of the prime minister, the State Bank of Pakistan will release a commemorative coin in honour of Edhi.


In 2011 Yousaf Raza Gilani the then Prime Minister of Pakistan recommended Edhi for a nomination of Nobel Peace Prize. Again in early 2016, a petition signed by 30,000 for a Nobel Peace prize to Edhi was moved by Ziauddin Yousafzai, the father of Malala Yousafzai. In her condolence message on Edhi's death, broadcast by BBC Urdu Service Malala quoted that "as a Nobel Peace Prize winner, I hold the right to nominate people for the prize and I have nominated Abdul Sattar Edhi" .
About the Nobel Peace Prize, Edhi said: "I don't care about it. The Nobel Prize doesn't mean anything to me. I want these people, I want humanity.
Najam Sethi, a governing board member of Pakistan Cricket Board proposed to rename Gaddafi Stadium after Edhi.

Source: Wikipedia

First Year Anniversary of the Lost: The Man with the Largest Free Ambulance Services and Greater Health Benefits to his Society In Pakistan

Abdul Sattar Edhi was the founder of Edhi Foundation,  a non-profit social welfare program in Pakistan in 1951. Edhi until his death on 8 July 2016 was the head of the organization and his wife Bilquis, a nurse, oversees the maternity and adoption services of the foundation. Its headquarters are in Karachi, Pakistan. The Edhi Foundation provides 24-hour emergency assistance across the nation of Pakistan and abroad. The Foundation provides, among many other services, shelter for the destitute, free hospitals and medical care, drug rehabilitation services, and national and international relief efforts. Its main focuses are Emergency Services, Orphans, Handicapped Persons, Shelters, Education, Healthcare, International Community Centers, Blood & Drug Bank, air ambulance services, Marine And Coastal Services.


   Edhi established his first welfare center in 1957 and then the Edhi Trust. What started as one man operating from a single room in Karachi is now the Edhi Foundation. The foundation has over 300 centers across the country, in big cities, small towns and remote rural areas, providing medical aid, family planning and emergency assistance. They own air ambulances, providing quick access to far-flung areas. In Karachi alone, the Edhi Foundation runs 8 hospitals providing free medical care, eye hospitals, diabetic centres, surgical units, a 4- bed cancer hospital and mobile dispensaries. In addition to these the Foundation also manages two blood banks in Karachi. As with other Edhi services, employed professionals and volunteers run these. The foundation has a Legal aid department, which provides free services and has secured the release of countless innocent prisoners. Commissioned doctors visit jails on a regular basis and also supply food and other essentials to the inmates. There are 15 " Apna Ghar" ["Our Home"] homes for the destitute children, runaways, and psychotics. During the last time of Abdul Sattar Edhi he donated his eyes to the blind people. The foundation also has an education scheme, which apart from teaching reading and writing covers various vocational activities such as driving, pharmacy and para-medical training. The emphasis is on self-sufficiency. The Edhi Foundation has branches in several countries where they provide relief to refugees in the United States, UK, Canada, Japan, and Bangladesh. In 1991 the Foundation provided aid to victims of the Gulf war and earthquake victims in Iran and Egypt. The organization has held the Guinness record for world's "largest volunteer ambulance organization" since 1997.[6] In 2016, after death of Abdul Sattar Edhi, state bank of Pakistan urges bank CEOs to donate for foundation.


 The Edhi Foundation provides a number of services, emergency and non-emergency, to the general public. In addition to emergency medical services and private ambulance services, the organization also renders aid to women and children in need, assists with missing persons cases, and helps in covering burial and graveyard costs of unclaimed and unidentified bodies during times of disaster and tragedy.
 Ambulance Services

As of March 2016, the Edhi Foundation owns over 1,800 private ambulance vans stationed in areas across Pakistan. The ambulance dispatchers in Karachi, one of the busiest cities in Pakistan, have reported up to 6,000 calls a day, with the average response time for each incident falling within 10 minutes. It was also an Edhi ambulance which responded to and picked up the body of the American journalist, Daniel Pearl, when he was killed in 2002.The organization also owns two private jets and one helicopter to assist in moving victims from hard-to-reach locations, especially during the event of a natural disaster.[10] In addition to land and air assistance, Edhi Foundation also hosts 28 rescue boats to aid during floods and in cases of shipwrecks and disaster along the Arabian Ocean coast.

Hospital Services 

The organization runs several private outpatient hospitals located in Pakistan. Additional medical facilities include a diabetic center, a nurse training center, immunization centers, and blood banks, including emergency banks during times of natural disasters or tragedies.

Childcare Services
 Bilquis Edhi, co-head of the Edhi Foundation, is responsible for overseeing children's and women's services within the organization. Services she heads currently for children include the jhoola (baby cradle) project, a child adoption center, and an abandoned children's welfare center. Jhoola is the Urdu word for "cradle". Most of the Edhi emergency centers have a jhoola located outside the venue for mothers to leave their infants, regardless of the current situation they may be in.These children are taken into custody and are taken care of, often being adopted by pre-screened families.

International Services 

The Edhi Foundation has reached out to international communities and assisted with the setup of several offices overseas which assist with donations, fundraising, and especially financially aiding Pakistanis who have flown overseas in need of urgent medical attention. In addition to providing their regular services, the overseas foundation offices often help with community needs as necessary. In 2005, the Edhi Foundation provided $100,000 in aid to relief efforts following Hurricane Katrina.

Source: Wikipedia

Thursday, February 23, 2017

Jordan Merecka: After Native Heart Failed Doctors Found That Total Artificial Heart Works Well

Jordan Merecka, 17, was born with multiple congenital heart defects, including dextrocardia, or a “reversed” heart. As a child, he received two open chest surgeries, several surgical revisions, and an implantable defibrillator. In April 2011, his health took a turn for the worse, and he was in critical need of a heart transplant. Over the weekend of May 21, all of his organs began to fail acutely and he could not breathe on his own since his heart was so weak.

On May 22 2011, Jordan underwent a history-making heart surgery at Texas Children’s Heart Center, where his native heart was removed and replaced by the Total Artificial Heart, which serve as a bridge to donor-heart transplantation. Texas Children’s Hospital became the first pediatric hospital in the world to implant the SynCardia temporary Total Artificial Heart into the chest of a teen.

After spending three months tethered to a 418-pound machine called “Big Blue” that powered his Total Artificial Heart while he was in the hospital, Jordan was able to leave the hospital and go home wearing the Freedom® portable driver. This battery-operated, 13.5-lb portable power supply allowed him to return to his home and move around freely while he awaited a donor heart.

As opposed to waiting in the hospital for his donor heart, the Total Artificial Heart allowed Jordan the luxury of being at home with his friends and family; the chance to rehabilitate and become stronger in preparation for his heart transplant, and most importantly, the time he needed to get a well matched donor heart.

Learn more about the Hear Failure Program at Texas Children's Hospital

Learn more about the Congenital Heart Surgery Service at Texas Children's Hospital
Learn more about Texas Children's Heart Center

Update to Jordan’s Condition:

Good news! On Saturday, Oct. 29, 2011, 18-year-old Jordan Merecka received a phone call that changed his life; he learned that he was a good match for a donor heart. After a 12-hour heart transplant surgery at Texas Children's Hospital, Merecka and his family are celebrating his amazing gift of a new life.

Friday, February 17, 2017

A Country Where Girls and Women Suffer Most from Traditional Believes During Their Cycle

The custom known as chaupadi isolates girls and women for the four days a month they are menstruating. An extreme level of it exists in Nepal where locals believe that they are impure to touch food utensils, to share house and to stay with them in the evenings and all the day during the time they are menstruating. They believe that they upset the Hindu gods and bring down a curse on their households if they remain indoors.   

   Girls and women in their monthly period had come with difficult situation and experienced hunger, isolation and discrimination. Many times they faced a life threaten conditions, where by some time extreme weather could led them nearly on the grave illness, and exposure to snake bites, and other human hazards.

 Nepal’s Supreme Court banned chaupadi in 2005, the practice still continues, underscoring how normalized this custom is throughout the region. Breaking down social constructs that contribute to practices such as chaupadi can be difficult. Yet we must be careful not to justify oppression in the name of respecting culture.

Although chaupadi is against the law, local authorities do not prosecute families that continue to enforce the practice or even urge them to stop. Few individuals or organizations, not even progressive groups in Nepal, are demanding that the laws banning it be followed. 

Human rights groups are making a significant move against this ill practice and United Nations defined:
 “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.”
   Although Nepal’s Supreme Court banned chaupadi in 2005, the practice still continues, underscoring how normalized this custom is throughout the region. Breaking down social constructs that contribute to practices such as chaupadi can be difficult. Yet we must be careful not to justify oppression in the name of respecting culture. 

 Source: STAT News

Psychologist Suggested 35 Affirmations That Will Change Your Life

Written by: Dr. Carmen Harra

If you believe the phrase you are what you think, then life truly stems from your thoughts. But we cannot rely purely on thoughts; we must translate thoughts into words and eventually into actions in order to manifest our intentions. This means we have to be very careful with our words, choosing to speak only those which work towards our benefit and cultivate our highest good. Affirmations help purify our thoughts and restructure the dynamic of our brains so that we truly begin to think nothing is impossible. The word affirmation comes from the Latin affirmare, originally meaning “to make steady, strengthen.”

Affirmations do indeed strengthen us by helping us believe in the potential of an action we desire to manifest. When we verbally affirm our dreams and ambitions, we are instantly empowered with a deep sense of reassurance that our wishful words will become reality.
Affirmations are proven methods of self-improvement because of their ability to rewire our brains. Much like exercise, they raise the level of feel-good hormones and push our brains to form new clusters of “positive thought” neurons(http://www.arlenetaylor.org/brain-care/953-affirmation). In the sequence of thought-speech-action, affirmations play an integral role by breaking patterns of negative thoughts, negative speech, and, in turn, negative actions.

The art of the spoken word is critical in crafting our futures. As a teacher of spirituality, it is my firm belief that we influence the universe word by word. If we dictate to it our wishes, it will respond. When we utter a sound, we emit a sound wave into the universe. This sound wave pierces through the air and becomes a real object. It therefore exists in our world, intangible and invisible. No words are empty words, as every syllable we speak engages energy towards or against us. If you constantly say “I can’t,” the energy of your words will repel the universal force against you. But if you say “I can!” the universe will endow you with the abilities to do just that. So speak away; relinquish your fears and purge your anger, predict your own future and live up to your potential with the 35 affirmations that will change your life:

1.) I am the architect of my life; I build its foundation and choose its contents.
2.) Today, I am brimming with energy and overflowing with joy.
3.) My body is healthy; my mind is brilliant; my soul is tranquil.
4.) I am superior to negative thoughts and low actions.
5.) I have been given endless talents which I begin to utilize today.
6.) I forgive those who have harmed me in my past and peacefully detach from them.
7.) A river of compassion washes away my anger and replaces it with love.
8.) I am guided in my every step by Spirit who leads me towards what I must know and do.
9.) (If you’re married) My marriage is becoming stronger, deeper, and more stable each day.
10.) I possess the qualities needed to be extremely successful.
11.) (For business owners) My business is growing, expanding, and thriving.
12.) Creative energy surges through me and leads me to new and brilliant ideas.
13.) Happiness is a choice. I base my happiness on my own accomplishments and the blessings I’ve been given.
14.) My ability to conquer my challenges is limitless; my potential to succeed is infinite.
15.) (For those who are unemployed) I deserve to be employed and paid well for my time, efforts, and ideas. Each day, I am closer to finding the perfect job for me.
16.) I am courageous and I stand up for myself.
17.) My thoughts are filled with positivity and my life is plentiful with prosperity.
18.) Today, I abandon my old habits and take up new, more positive ones.
19.) Many people look up to me and recognize my worth; I am admired.
20.) I am blessed with an incredible family and wonderful friends.
21.) I acknowledge my own self-worth; my confidence is soaring.
22.) Everything that is happening now is happening for my ultimate good.
23.) I am a powerhouse; I am indestructible.
24.) Though these times are difficult, they are only a short phase of life.
25.) My future is an ideal proj
ection of what I envision now.
26.) My efforts are being supported by the universe; my dreams manifest into reality before my eyes.
27.) (For those who are single) The perfect partner for me is coming into my life sooner than I expect.
28.) I radiate beauty, charm, and grace.
29.) I am conquering my illness; I am defeating it steadily each day.
30.) My obstacles are moving out of my way; my path is carved towards greatness.
31.) I wake up today with strength in my heart and clarity in my mind.
32.) My fears of tomorrow are simply melting away.
33.) I am at peace with all that has happened, is happening, and will happen.
34.) My nature is Divine; I am a spiritual being.
35.) My life is just beginning.

You can utilize any of these affirmations alone or create your own unique combination based on your personal wishes and needs. What is most important is to establish a profound communication with the universe — so say it with conviction, say it in your own unique voice, and make it happen in the real world.
Affirming my love,
Dr. Carmen Harra

Source: Huffington Post

Tuesday, February 14, 2017

An African Health Minister Awarded as a 'Best Health Minister' in the World

H.E Minister of Health for Senegal, Dr. Awa Marrie receiving an honor from H.E Vice-president and Prime minister of UAE, Sheikh Mohamed Bin Rashid  
Dr. Awa Marie Coll Seck who is the Minister for Health of the Republic of Senegal since 2012 has been awarded ‘The Best Minister for Health in the World’ at the World Government Summit held in Dubai on Sunday 12th Feb. 2017, after competing 8 other Ministers of Health whom have been short-listed for the candidacy of this award out of the 20 of World Health Ministers who were finally selected to run for this honor based on a result made from world-wide survey.

 His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai presented the award to Her Excellency Awa Marie Coll Seck for her work in stopping Malaria and limiting Ebola from spreading locally and internationally. Senegal was largely able to avoid the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, recording just one case of the deadly virus. It was was declared Ebola free in October 2015.

 In its second edition, this year's award focused on developing countries due to the challenges their governments face as a result of scarce resources and limited technological capabilities, which make success more recognizable.

The winner was chosen based on a set of criteria that included innovative leadership, quality and impact, ease of replicating strategies to other governments and integrity inside and outside the country ruled. The award recognizes public servant that have had a significant impact in globally and in their country. It highlights pioneering governmental models and remarkable efforts to shape the future.

Dr. Awa Marie Coll Seck was Executive Director of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RMB) from 2004-2011 and served as Director of the UNAIDS Department of Country and Regional Support from 1996-2001. She was Minister of Health and Prevention of Senegal from 2001 to 2003. Dr Coll Seck was elected as chairperson of Committee B of the World Health Assembly and also as president of the Assembly of the Ministries of Health of the West African Health Organization in 2002.

 She has been awarded numerous professional and academic honours, including the Knight of the Order of Merit of the French Republic, Chevalier, Ordre des Palmes académiques; Officer of the Order of Merit Senegalese; and Knight of the Order of Merit of Burkina Faso. She is an honorary member of the Academy of Sciences and Technologies of Senegal and is the author of more than 150 scientific publications. Dr Coll Seck earned her medical degree from the University of Dakar in 1978.


Source: Khaleej Times